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})(window,document,'script','https://www.google-analytics.com/analytics.js','ga'); ga('create', 'UA-79378845-1', 'auto'); ga('send', 'pageview'); </script> <div class="WordSection1"> <h1 style="text-align: center;" align="center"><span style=""><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></h1> <h1 style="margin: 5pt 49.8pt 5pt 42.55pt; text-align: center;" align="center"><span style="font-size: 12pt; font-family: &quot;Calibri&quot;,sans-serif;">PROYECTO "TALLER RIESGOS NATURALES Y PERCEPCIN: CONSTRUYENDO UNA ESTRATEGIA PEDAGGICA PARA LA ENSEANZA DE LOS RIESGOS NATURALES EN COSTA RICA<o:p></o:p></span></h1> <h1 style="margin: 5pt 49.8pt 5pt 42.55pt; text-align: center;" align="center"><span style="font-size: 12pt; font-family: &quot;Calibri&quot;,sans-serif;">I PARTE<o:p></o:p></span></h1> <p style="margin: 0cm 49.8pt 0.0001pt 42.55pt;"><span style="font-size: 12pt; font-family: &quot;Calibri&quot;,sans-serif;"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <h3 style="margin: 5pt 49.8pt 5pt 42.55pt;"><span style="font-size: 12pt; font-family: &quot;Calibri&quot;,sans-serif;">Carlos Montero C. ; Jeannette Arauz M. Investigadores del Observatorio Vulcanolgico y Sismolgico de Costa Rica (OVSICORI),<o:p></o:p></span></h3> <p style="margin: 0cm 49.8pt 0.0001pt 42.55pt;"><span style="font-size: 12pt; font-family: &quot;Calibri&quot;,sans-serif;"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p style="margin: 0cm 49.8pt 0.0001pt 42.55pt;"><span style="font-size: 12pt; font-family: &quot;Calibri&quot;,sans-serif;">Esta serie de artculos pretende dar cuenta de la experiencia particular de los autores en el contexto del proyecto  Taller Riesgos Naturales y Percepcin ejecutado en el Instituto de Investigacin: Observatorio Vulcanolgico y Sismolgico de Costa Rica de la Universidad Nacional.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p style="margin: 0cm 49.8pt 0.0001pt 42.55pt;"><span style="font-size: 12pt; font-family: &quot;Calibri&quot;,sans-serif;"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p style="margin: 0cm 49.8pt 0.0001pt 42.55pt;"><span style="font-size: 12pt; font-family: &quot;Calibri&quot;,sans-serif;">En Costa Rica, desde hace unos 10 aos el tema de los desastres naturales ha sido incorporado a la <span class="SpellE">currcula</span> desde la enseanza preescolar, primero y segundo ciclo de enseanza general bsica y secundaria. Aunque este hecho es muy significativo, el abordaje del tema arrastra diversos problemas de muy variada ndole: desde una estrategia pedaggica conductista y formal, hasta el peso del enfoque <span class="SpellE">desastrolgico</span> centrado en la respuesta y en la visin negativa de la naturaleza.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p style="margin: 0cm 49.8pt 0.0001pt 42.55pt;"><span style="font-size: 12pt; font-family: &quot;Calibri&quot;,sans-serif;"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p style="margin: 0cm 49.8pt 0.0001pt 42.55pt;"><span style="font-size: 12pt; font-family: &quot;Calibri&quot;,sans-serif;">Respondiendo a este diagnstico los autores se han propuesto la insercin de una unidad didctica en el tema de los riesgos naturales que se construye con base en las experiencias anuales y que va incorporando diversos aspectos desde esa prctica cotidiana hasta los principios tericos y pedaggicos.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p style="margin: 0cm 49.8pt 0.0001pt 42.55pt;"><span style="font-size: 12pt; font-family: &quot;Calibri&quot;,sans-serif;"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <h2 style="margin: 5pt 49.8pt 5pt 42.55pt;"><span style="font-size: 12pt; font-family: &quot;Calibri&quot;,sans-serif;">Antecedentes<o:p></o:p></span></h2> <p style="margin: 0cm 49.8pt 0.0001pt 42.55pt;"><span style="font-size: 12pt; font-family: &quot;Calibri&quot;,sans-serif;"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p style="margin: 0cm 49.8pt 0.0001pt 42.55pt;"><span style="font-size: 12pt; font-family: &quot;Calibri&quot;,sans-serif;">Las actividades relacionadas con el  Taller Riesgos Naturales y Percepcin iniciaron en el ao 2000, en el marco del proyecto  Saber Ambiental , ejecutado conjuntamente por el Instituto de Estudios Sociales y Poblacin (IDESPO) y el Observatorio Vulcanolgico y Sismolgico de Costa Rica (OVSICORI), de la Universidad Nacional.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p style="margin: 0cm 49.8pt 0.0001pt 42.55pt;"><span style="font-size: 12pt; font-family: &quot;Calibri&quot;,sans-serif;">El fin del proyecto es promover la sensibilizacin en el tema de prevencin de riesgos entre la comunidad educativa, y consiste en la aplicacin de la metodologa de elaboracin de mapas de percepcin del riesgo en escuelas pblicas. El objetivo final del taller es el desarrollo de una unidad didctica para I y II ciclo de la enseanza general bsica, en el campo de los riesgos naturales.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p style="margin: 0cm 49.8pt 0.0001pt 42.55pt;"><span style="font-size: 12pt; font-family: &quot;Calibri&quot;,sans-serif;"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p style="margin: 0cm 49.8pt 0.0001pt 42.55pt;"><span style="font-size: 12pt; font-family: &quot;Calibri&quot;,sans-serif;">Para realizar este taller se ha contado con la participacin de distintas instituciones pblicas y privadas que de una u otra forma han colaborado. Este son los casos del Ministerio de Educacin Pblica (Oficina de Educacin Ambiental, Regional de Caas y de Limn), la Oficina de Emergencias 911 del Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (ICE), la Comisin Nacional de Prevencin y Atencin de Emergencias de Costa Rica (CNE), la Compaa Nacional de Fuerza y Luz (CNFL), la Municipalidad de San Jos (MSJ), Hacienda La Pacfica, el Ingenio <span class="SpellE">Taboga</span> S.A. y la Agencia de Cooperacin Internacional del Japn (JICA).<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p style="margin: 0cm 49.8pt 0.0001pt 42.55pt;"><span style="font-size: 12pt; font-family: &quot;Calibri&quot;,sans-serif;"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <h2 style="margin: 5pt 49.8pt 5pt 42.55pt;"><span style="font-size: 12pt; font-family: &quot;Calibri&quot;,sans-serif;">Acerca de la Metodologa<o:p></o:p></span></h2> <p style="margin: 0cm 49.8pt 0.0001pt 42.55pt;"><span style="font-size: 12pt; font-family: &quot;Calibri&quot;,sans-serif;"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p style="margin: 0cm 49.8pt 0.0001pt 42.55pt;"><span style="font-size: 12pt; font-family: &quot;Calibri&quot;,sans-serif;">La primera fase del taller consiste en una dinmica con los nios de las escuelas seleccionadas, quienes elaboran mapas cognitivos, (Bosque <span class="SpellE">Sendra</span> y otros, 1992). En stos los estudiantes expresan con la mayor libertad posible sus preocupaciones respecto a los riesgos a los que consideran estar expuestos (Fig. 1 y 2).<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p style="margin: 0cm 49.8pt 0.0001pt 42.55pt;"><span style="font-size: 12pt; font-family: &quot;Calibri&quot;,sans-serif;">La segunda fase es el anlisis y verificacin de la informacin. Aqu participan los estudiantes universitarios de cualquier carrera que matriculan el curso optativo <i>Riesgos Naturales y Percepcin </i>impartido por el OVSICORI (Fig. 3). Comprende tanto el trabajo de clase como de campo, la participacin de los nios y padres de familia y la comunidad. El anlisis de la informacin de los mapas mentales y comprobacin de campo es realizado por los estudiantes del curso optativo.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p style="margin: 0cm 49.8pt 0.0001pt 42.55pt;"><span style="font-size: 12pt; font-family: &quot;Calibri&quot;,sans-serif;"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p style="margin: 0cm 49.8pt 0.0001pt 42.55pt; line-height: 147pt;"><span style="font-size: 12pt; font-family: &quot;Calibri&quot;,sans-serif;"><!--[if gte vml 1]><v:shapetype id="_x0000_t75" coordsize="21600,21600" o:spt="75" o:preferrelative="t" path="m@4@5l@4@11@9@11@9@5xe" filled="f" stroked="f"> <v:stroke joinstyle="miter"/> <v:formulas> <v:f eqn="if lineDrawn pixelLineWidth 0"/> <v:f eqn="sum @0 1 0"/> <v:f eqn="sum 0 0 @1"/> <v:f eqn="prod @2 1 2"/> <v:f eqn="prod @3 21600 pixelWidth"/> <v:f eqn="prod @3 21600 pixelHeight"/> <v:f eqn="sum @0 0 1"/> <v:f eqn="prod @6 1 2"/> <v:f eqn="prod @7 21600 pixelWidth"/> <v:f eqn="sum @8 21600 0"/> <v:f eqn="prod @7 21600 pixelHeight"/> <v:f eqn="sum @10 21600 0"/> </v:formulas> <v:path o:extrusionok="f" gradientshapeok="t" o:connecttype="rect"/> <o:lock v:ext="edit" aspectratio="t"/> </v:shapetype><v:shape id="Imagen_x0020_5" o:spid="_x0000_i1026" type="#_x0000_t75" style='width:3in;height:176.25pt;visibility:visible;mso-wrap-style:square'> <v:imagedata src="doc302-contenido_archivos/image001.png" o:title=""/> </v:shape><![endif]--><!--[if !vml]--><img src="doc302-contenido_archivos/image001.png" v:shapes="Imagen_x0020_5" height="235" width="288"><!--[endif]--></span><span style="font-size: 12pt; font-family: &quot;Calibri&quot;,sans-serif;"><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class="s3" style="margin: 0cm 49.8pt 0.0001pt 42.55pt;"><span style="font-size: 12pt; font-family: &quot;Calibri&quot;,sans-serif;">Fig. 1 Mapa de percepcin del riesgo, elaborado por un grupo de nios de la escuela El Castillo, La Fortuna de San Carlos, C. R.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p style="margin: 0cm 49.8pt 0.0001pt 42.55pt;"><span style="font-size: 12pt; font-family: &quot;Calibri&quot;,sans-serif;"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p style="margin: 0cm 49.8pt 0.0001pt 42.55pt;"><span style="font-size: 12pt; font-family: &quot;Calibri&quot;,sans-serif;">La tercera fase corresponde a la realizacin de un taller en las escuelas participantes, el cual est a cargo de los estudiantes del curso optativo. Durante esta actividad se analizan conjuntamente con los nios los mapas elaborados y los estudiantes universitarios hacen una caracterizacin de los riesgos presentes en la comunidad con base en una investigacin efectuada a modo de <span class="SpellE">prediagnstico</span> que sirva de insumo para un estudio ms profundo de los riesgos de la comunidad. (Fig. 3 y 4).<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p style="margin: 0cm 49.8pt 0.0001pt 42.55pt;"><span style="font-size: 12pt; font-family: &quot;Calibri&quot;,sans-serif;"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p style="margin: 0cm 49.8pt 0.0001pt 42.55pt; line-height: 147pt;"><span style="font-size: 12pt; font-family: &quot;Calibri&quot;,sans-serif;"><!--[if gte vml 1]><v:shape id="Imagen_x0020_6" o:spid="_x0000_i1025" type="#_x0000_t75" style='width:230.25pt;height:177.75pt; visibility:visible;mso-wrap-style:square'> <v:imagedata src="doc302-contenido_archivos/image002.png" o:title=""/> </v:shape><![endif]--><!--[if !vml]--><img src="doc302-contenido_archivos/image002.png" v:shapes="Imagen_x0020_6" height="237" width="307"><!--[endif]--></span><span style="font-size: 12pt; font-family: &quot;Calibri&quot;,sans-serif;"><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class="s3" style="margin: 0cm 49.8pt 0.0001pt 42.55pt;"><span style="font-size: 12pt; font-family: &quot;Calibri&quot;,sans-serif;">Fig. 2 Estudiantes de la escuela Monseor <span class="SpellE">Leipold</span>, Caas dibujando los mapas mentales. 2003.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p style="margin: 0cm 49.8pt 0.0001pt 42.55pt;"><span style="font-size: 12pt; font-family: &quot;Calibri&quot;,sans-serif;"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <h2 style="margin: 5pt 49.8pt 5pt 42.55pt;"><span style="font-size: 12pt; font-family: &quot;Calibri&quot;,sans-serif;">Referencias<o:p></o:p></span></h2> <p style="margin: 0cm 49.8pt 0.0001pt 42.55pt;"><span style="font-size: 12pt; font-family: &quot;Calibri&quot;,sans-serif;"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p style="margin: 0cm 49.8pt 0.0001pt 42.55pt;"><span style="font-size: 12pt; font-family: &quot;Calibri&quot;,sans-serif;">Arroyo <span class="SpellE">Ilera</span>, Fernando y Prez Bolo, Amparo, 1997. Reflexiones sobre el espacio geogrfico y su enseanza. Estudios Geogrficos, Instituto de economa y geografa, Madrid. <span class="SpellE">Pp</span> 513-543.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p style="margin: 0cm 49.8pt 0.0001pt 42.55pt;"><span style="font-size: 12pt; font-family: &quot;Calibri&quot;,sans-serif;"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p style="margin: 0cm 49.8pt 0.0001pt 42.55pt;"><span style="font-size: 12pt; font-family: &quot;Calibri&quot;,sans-serif;">Bosque <span class="SpellE">Sendra</span>, Joaqun y otros, 1992. Prcticas de Geografa de la Percepcin y de la actividad cotidiana. Editorial <span class="SpellE">Oikos</span>-Tau.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p style="margin: 0cm 49.8pt 0.0001pt 42.55pt;"><span style="font-size: 12pt; font-family: &quot;Calibri&quot;,sans-serif;"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p style="margin: 0cm 49.8pt 0.0001pt 42.55pt;"><span style="font-size: 12pt; font-family: &quot;Calibri&quot;,sans-serif;">Montero, Carlos, Compilador, 2000. Gua del curso: "Los Riesgos Naturales y la Percepcin". (OVA201). Observatorio Vulcanolgico y Sismolgico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p style="margin: 0cm 49.8pt 0.0001pt 42.55pt;"><span style="font-size: 12pt; font-family: &quot;Calibri&quot;,sans-serif;"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p style="margin: 0cm 49.8pt 0.0001pt 42.55pt;"><span style="font-size: 12pt; font-family: &quot;Calibri&quot;,sans-serif;">Montero, Carlos y otros, 2001. Mapa de riesgos: comunidad de El Castillo, Costa Rica. Concurso mapas de riesgo. OVSICORI-UNA.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p style="margin: 0cm 49.8pt 0.0001pt 42.55pt;"><span style="font-size: 12pt; font-family: &quot;Calibri&quot;,sans-serif;">Montero, C., y Rodrguez, H., 2001. Riesgos Naturales y Percepcin: informe de trabajo realizado en cuatro escuelas del distrito de Peas Blancas de San Ramn. Observatorio Vulcanolgico y Sismolgico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p style="margin: 0cm 49.8pt 0.0001pt 42.55pt;"><span style="font-size: 12pt; font-family: &quot;Calibri&quot;,sans-serif;"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p style="margin: 0cm 49.8pt 0.0001pt 42.55pt;"><span style="font-size: 12pt; font-family: &quot;Calibri&quot;,sans-serif;">Montero, Carlos, Arauz, Jeannette y Rodrguez Henry, 2003.  Informe Final Taller Riesgos Naturales y Percepcin . Dirigido a la Oficina del Sistema de Emergencias 911. Observatorio Vulcanolgico y Sismolgico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional (OVSICORI-UNA).<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p style="margin: 0cm 49.8pt 0.0001pt 42.55pt;"><span style="font-size: 12pt; font-family: &quot;Calibri&quot;,sans-serif;"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p style="margin: 0cm 49.8pt 0.0001pt 42.55pt;"><span style="font-size: 12pt; font-family: &quot;Calibri&quot;,sans-serif;">Montero, Carlos, Arauz, Jeannette y Rodrguez Henry, 2004.  Taller Riesgos Naturales y Percepcin . Informe final de Caas, Guanacaste. Observatorio Vulcanolgico y Sismolgico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional (<span class="SpellE">OVSICORI</span>-UNA).<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p style="margin: 0cm 49.8pt 0.0001pt 42.55pt;"><span style="font-size: 12pt; font-family: &quot;Calibri&quot;,sans-serif;"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p style="margin: 0cm 49.8pt 0.0001pt 42.55pt;"><span style="font-size: 12pt; font-family: &quot;Calibri&quot;,sans-serif;"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> </div> </body></html>